barbour saleceline bags ugg雪靴專賣店 PDF summary ===> THE GRAVITY THEORY OF MASS EXTINCTION
THE RISE AND FALL OF THE DINOSAURS
GRAVITY AND DINOSAURS
Author: John Stojanowski
This website contains the early publications which became the foundation for the Gravity Theory of Mass Extinction (GTME). Initially, when searching for an explanation for the gigantism of the largest dinosaurs, I realized that dinosaurs appeared after the super-continent of Pangea had formed and all of them, except avian dinosaurs (i.e., birds), disappeared when Pangea's component continents had broken apart and were beginning to move toward their current positions. My suspicion that there was a linkage between dinosaur gigantism, extinction and Pangea's state of consolidation led me to research and publish the GTME.
The research in paleontology, geology and paleomagnetism along with the new discoveries in those fields have reenforced my confidence of the validity of this theory. I have not come across any information which has caused me to question the basic structure of the theory.
Briefly, the GTME posits the following:
1. Today, the continental land masses are distributed fairly uniformly around the globe. In the distant past (e.g., when Pangea existed) the distribution did not have this uniformity.
2. When there is a change in continental distribution, several things happen concurrently:
a. A wobble of the Earth will occur.
b. Nutation damping of the wobble will commence in order to return the Earth to a minimum energy status.
c. The nutation damping can take different forms. If the continental redistribution changed the latitude of the total continental center of mass (and therefore would alter the Earth's angular momentum and rotational kinetic energy) then one or both of the following would occur to maintain the conservation of the above two quantities:
- The Earth's rotational velocity would change (i.e., the length of a day would change).
- The Earth's core elements (inner/outer cores and densest part of lower mantle) would move.
d. There is no proof that the Earth's rotational velocity changed during the Mesozoic (disregarding the insignificant effect of the moon's gravitational pull on this planet), therefore, the Earth's core elements moved away from their current geocentric position.
e. When the core elements moved, by definition, the surface gravitation changed; lowest "g" the furthest distance away from the core elements, which would have been at the equatorial region of Pangea.
f. The lowered "g" on Pangea accounts for dinosaur gigantism.
g. The core element(s) movement accounts for the massive flood basalt volcanism of the Mesozoic. This type of volcanism is produced by plumes initiated at the core/mantle boundary.
h. The resultant surface gravity gradient around the globe (i.e., lowest at Pangea and highest antipodally) accounts for the extremely high sea levels near Pangea during the Phanerozoic Eon.
i. The core element(s) movement accounts for the Kiaman Superchron and the Cretaceous Long Superchron. These are two anomalously long periods when the Earth's magnetic field did not reverse.
Finally, the most powerful support for the GTME comes from the science of paleomagnetism, which I believe substantiates this theory. This is described in detail in the third edition of the book:
THE GRAVITY THEORY OF MASS EXTINCTION: A new unified theory of mass extinction explains the rise and fall of the dinosaurs
The very early components of the theory, which are very basic and do not include the analysis of angular momentum and rotational kinetic energy nor the critical paleomagnetism support (which can only be found in the book) can be viewed below:
1. ORIGINAL THEORY (2004)
2. ADDITIONAL SUPPORT OF THEORY (2006)
3. MAJOR ADDITION TO ORIGINAL THEORY (2007)
4. PERMIAN-TRIASSIC EXTINCTION - THE GRAVITY THEORY (2007)